Hyperbolic Tangent Activation Function

A hyperbolic tangent function is another type of activation function used in Deep Learning, which is a smoother, zero-centred function.

   x: an input data point

In terms of sigmoid function:

Range: (-1, 1)

# Import Numpy Library
import numpy as np

#Hyperbolic Tangent Function

def tanh(x):
    return 2*(sigmoid(2*x)) - 1 

Use cases:

Used in multi-layered neural networks.

Mostly appears in recurrent neural networks for natural language processing and speech recognition.



Tanh function gives better results than sigmoid function when dealing with multi-layered neural networks.

Since the range of Tanh function is (-1, 1), the outputs are zero centered and having a higher convergence, the network works on normalized data resulting in faster learning.



Though Tanh is a zero centered function, it still suffers from vanishing gradient  during backpropagation.

 Produces some dead neurons when the input value is 0.


Hard Hyperbolic function is a variant of Tanh function, which reduces the computational speed thus aids in NLP applications.


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